In her PhD thesis, Gro Grimnes has looked at aspects of the association between infection, inflammation and venous thromboembolism.


  1. There is no association between neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio and risk of future venous thromboembolism.
  2. Acute infection is a strong trigger for venous thromboembolism in hospitalized patients.
  3. Acute inflammation is also a trigger for venous thromboembolism.


Thesis: Infection, inflammation, and risk of venous thromboembolism
Candidate: Gro Grimnes
Time: June 18, 2018 at 12:15
Place: UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Farmasibygget: Tabletten
Link to university website (in Norwegian)


(1) The risk of venous thromboembolism was not affected by the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio, a biomarker of low-grade inflammation. However, high neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio was associated with increased risk of mortality among those who experienced venous thromboembolism.

The study includes 25,107 subjects from the fourth survey of the Tromsø Study in 1994–95, followed until 2012. After multivariable adjustment neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio showed no significant association with either provoked or unprovoked venous thromboembolism, deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism.

(2) Immobilization does not explain the strong association between acute infection and venous thromboembolism in hospitalized patients. The risk of venous thromboembolism was 24-fold higher within three months after an acute infection. Adjustment for immobilization reduced the increase to 15-fold. Infection and immobilization had a synergistic effect on the risk.

707 Tromsø study participants who later suffered from venous thromboembolism were included in the study.

(3) Acute inflammation was also a trigger for venous thromboembolism in the same 707 patients. The level of C-reactive protein was 58% higher in the hazard period than in the control periods, and the association was only slightly attenuated after adjustment for immobilization and infection.

(4) The antibiotic Vancomyosin changes the gut microbiome, and the changes are accompanied by increased inflammation (C-reactive protein) and levels of coagulation factor VIII:C. These findings are the result of a currently unpublished randomized controlled trial.


(1) Grimnes, G., Horvei, L. D., Tichelaar, V., Brækkan, S. K., & Hansen, J. B. (2016). Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio and future risk of venous thromboembolism and mortality: the Tromsø Study. Haematologica101(10), e401-e404.

(2) Grimnes, G., Isaksen, T., Tichelaar, Y. V., Brækkan, S. K., & Hansen, J. B. (2018). Acute infection as a trigger for incident venous thromboembolism: Results from a population‐based case‐crossover studyResearch and Practice in Thrombosis and Haemostasis2(1), 85-92.

(3) Grimnes, G., Isaksen, T., Tichelaar, Y. I. G. V., Brox, J., Brækkan, S. K., & Hansen, J. B. (2018). C-reactive protein and risk of venous thromboembolism: Results from a population-based case-crossover studyHaematologica, haematol-2017.

Latest News

May 28, 2024

Photos from the workshop on Advancing Ischemic Heart Disease Research

Approximately 25 researchers met in Trondheim for the new workshop called “Advancing Ischemic Heart Disease…

Read more
May 14, 2024

Photos from Course in Cardiac Mechanics 2024

Cardiac researchers and clinical cardiologists need to know key concepts and terms for measuring and describing…

Read more
April 28, 2024

Professor Kristina H. Haugaa receives the 2024 Heart Research Award

The Norwegian Health Association has awarded the prestigious 2024 Heart Research Award (Hjerteforskningsprisen) to professor Kristina…

Read more
September 08, 2023

Annual Symposium 2023: Winners and photos

More than 100 participants attended the 21st Annual Norwegian Symposium on Heart Research, hosted by…

Read more
Norheart uses cookies for analytical purposes, content and ads customisation, and to further develop our services.
Learn more
Show again