Neither a moderate intake of wild cod nor farmed salmon decreases blood sugar in overweight and obese adults. However, obese rats improve their lipid profile following intake of both cod and salmon, according to the PhD thesis of Linn Anja Slåke Vikøren.
- Intake of baked and raw salmon fillets give similar effects on lipids and omega-3 fatty acids in obese rats.
- Intake of salmon fillet delays development of high blood pressure in obese rats.
- No effect was seen on glycemic control in overweight and obese individuals following a moderate intake of either farmed salmon or cod.
Thesis: Salmon and cod fillet consumption and effects on metabolic risk factors. Intervention studies in humans and rats with overweight and obesity
Candidate: Linn Anja Slåke Vikøren
Time: February 26, 2018 at 11:15
Place: University of Bergen, BB-building: Auditorium 1
Link to university website (in Norwegian)
(1) Baking as a preparation method does not seem to alter protein and fat qualities of salmon fillets. Obese rats fed a diet containing 25 % of total protein from baked salmon filled reduced their LDL cholesterol levels compared to rats eating 100 % of protein from casein. Moreover, triglyceride levels increased and HDL levels decreased following intake of baked salmon, and there were indications of the same effects following intake of raw salmon.
(2) Salmon intake could be important in prevention of hypertension and kidney disease. In obese rats, diets with both baked and raw salmon fillet for four weeks delayed development of hypertension and resulted in lower urine concentrations of albumin and cystatin C compared to the control group. Intake of salmon fillet also protected against podocyte damage.
(3) Data from a randomized clinical trial in humans are yet to by published, but shows no improvements in blood sugar in overweight and obese individuals following a moderate intake of farmed salmon with low levels of omega-3 fatty acids. Similarly, eating wild cod for dinner three days a week for three months did not improve glycemic control compared to the control diet. 183 healthy adults participated in the study, and were randomized to one of three groups eating either salmon, cod or meat.
(4) In obese rats, however, intake of both salmon and cod resulted in lower plasma cholesterol levels.
(1) Vikøren, L. A., Drotningsvik, A., Bergseth, M. T., Mjøs, S. A., Mola, N., Leh, S., Mellgren, G., & Gudbrandsen, O. A. (2017). Effects of baked and raw salmon fillet on lipids and n-3 PUFAs in serum and tissues in Zucker fa/fa rats. Food & nutrition research, 61(1), 1333395.
(2) Vikøren, L. A., Drotningsvik, A., Mwakimonga, A., Leh, S., Mellgren, G., & Gudbrandsen, O. A. (2018). Diets containing salmon fillet delay development of high blood pressure and hyperfusion damage in kidneys in obese Zucker fa/fa rats. Journal of the American Society of Hypertension.