Leading the way towards a multi-node leadless pacemaker system

PhD candidate Pritam Bose has contributed towards developing a communication framework of a novel multi-node pacemaker system for patients requiring multi-chamber pacing. His research investigates a communication network consisting of devices within the heart, in subcutaneous tissues and outside the body.


  1. A radio frequency range of 2.4–2.5 GHz seems optimal for in-body communication between multiple nodes in a leadless cardiac pacemaker system.
  2. The abdominal wall is the optimal position for the placement of an additional subcutaneous implant transceiver.
  3. Gaussian Frequency Shift-Keying (GFSK) offers a simple, low-budget modulation scheme for bi-directional communication between multiple nodes.


Thesis: Communication and Signal Transmission for In-body Cardiac Sensor Networks
Candidate: Pritam Bose
Time: November 19, 2019 at 13:15
Place: Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet: Seminarrom 1 B2.U001
Link to university website


(3) The Industrial, Scientific, and Medical radio band of the frequency range of 2.4–2.5 GHz is optimal for in-body to in-body implant communication for future multinodal capsule-like leadless cardiac pacemaker technology. The upper part of the abdominal wall is the optimal position for the placement of an additional subcutaneous implant transceiver, functioning as a hub for capsule synchronization and data storage. The attenuation of the transmission of signals between the implants increases with the increase in blood volume inside the heart.

(4) Gaussian Frequency Shift-Keying (GFSK) has the best performance among the three tested simple, low-budget modulation schemes at 433 MHz for bi-directional communication between the multiple nodes of a leadless pacemaker system.

(1) Peak communication performance between intracardiac capsules occurs during end-systole. The coupling between the capsule antennas decreases with increasing blood volume.

(2) Bose and co-workers use a liquid model of a human heart and experiments on living animals to investigate in-body and off-body channel models at 2.4 GHz. There was good accordance between the two methods.


(1) Bose, P., Khaleghi, A., & Balasingham, I. (2018, July). Wireless Channel Modeling for Leadless Cardiac Pacemaker: Effects ofVentricular Blood Volume. In 2018 40th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC) (pp. 3746-3749). IEEE.

(2) Bose, P., Khaleghi, A., & Balasingham, I. (2018). In-Body and Off-Body Channel Modeling for Future Leadless Cardiac Pacemakers Based on Phantom and Animal ExperimentsIEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters17(12), 2484-2488.

(3) Bose, P., Khaleghi, A., Albatat, M., Bergsland, J., & Balasingham, I. (2018). RF channel modeling for implant-to-implant communication and implant to subcutaneous implant communication for future leadless cardiac pacemakersIEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering65(12), 2798-2807.

(4) Bose, P., Khaleghi, A., Mahmood, S., Albatat, M., Bergsland, J., & Balasingham, I. (2019). Evaluation of Data Telemetry for Future Leadless Cardiac PacemakerIEEE Access7, 157933-157945.

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